The main contents of this website. These essays will be used for publishing books.

Essays

Most of people believe that material recycling is the true recycling and thermal recycling is a fake. But the convent ...

Essays

Georgescu-Roegen coined the fourth law of thermodynamics according to which matter continuously and irrevocably degra ...

Essays

Clausius, one of the main founders of the modern thermodynamics, is the originator of the term “entropy,” but before ...

Essays

A heat engine is a device that repeatedly converts thermal energy into kinetic energy. It needs the difference of tem ...

Essays

Galileo was once thought to have discovered kinetic laws important for classical mechanics by himself by means of obs ...

Essays

Christianity and Judaism are paternal religions that came into power after overcoming maternal religions. The Catholi ...

Essays

The Anno Domini dating system and the Gregorian calendar that we now use are not zero-based numbering systems. There ...

Essays

Magnetism and electrostatic forces were regarded as occult action at a distance from ancient times and the inquiry in ...

Essays

Sumerians used sexagesimal numerals not only because the number 60 has many divisors or it is countable on the finger ...

Essays

Milindapañha tells that King Milinda, an Indo-Greek king, talked with Nāgasena, a Buddhist sage, embraced the Buddhis ...

Essays

The original sense of “paradigm” is “exemplar” and Kuhn’s “paradigm” signifies such a textbook theory or an experimen ...

Essays

When academic journals used paper media, limited space obliged editors to have referees review contributors’ manuscri ...

Essays

The Copernican heliocentric model was not the victory of science over the religious superstition prevailing in the Mi ...

Essays

An indefinite integral is the integral whose lower boundary is constant and whose upper boundary is variable and it s ...

Essays

When infinitesimal calculus was first established, the limit of a function was defined in terms of infinitesimal or i ...

Essays

Gottfried Leibniz named his metaphysics the system of pre-established harmony, which presupposed the ontological argu ...

Essays

An ontological argument for the existence of God defines God as the greatest perfect being and states that He must ex ...

Essays

The phlogiston theory is a chemical hypothesis that was supported in the 18th century. According to this theory, all ...

Essays

A Cartesian coordinate system is named after René Descartes. But Descartes did not first invent the Cartesian coordin ...

Essays

David Hume, a Scottish philosopher in the 18th century, is famous for skepticism on the objectivity of causality and ...

Essays

Philosophy began in ancient Greece by inquiring what arche, namely the origin of everything is. Systemics as philosop ...

Essays

I intended to be a professor of philosophy and became a student/postgraduate of three Japanese Universities. At first ...

Essays

A scapegoat is, in the original Hebrew sense, a goat symbolically burdened with the sins of the ancient Jewish people ...

Essays

The distinction of center/periphery is based on the stratified structure of ancient cities, where the Court or a temp ...

Essays

Many people are eager to satisfy their desire for difference; ladies with big-name brand products that show off their ...

Essays

In the late 1990s, a term "New Economy" was in fashion. According to Brian Arthur, the pioneer of economics ...

Essays

If it is competition that promotes the progress, the lock-in by the defacto standard, as it stops the competition of ...

Essays

The defacto standard is an in fact public standard that the market mechanism has selected, while such a standard is c ...

Essays

You can imagine a culture as a correlate to self-sufficient economy where everyone could collect information and crea ...

Essays

Speculation is investment in the hope of capital gain rather than income gain. Many people consider speculators dange ...

Essays

Why does money have value and circulate, though it does not have value in itself? I will answer this question in term ...

Essays

A social system is not just a gathering of people. It does not consist in the interaction between people either. You ...

Essays

A textbook of politics usually mentions the following as a defect of democracy: Democracy operates under majority rul ...

Essays

What is the criterion for reforming social systems? Let’s examine utilitarian, Pareto and Kaldor improvements.

Essays

Economists usually consider consumption opposite to production. From the viewpoint of entropy, however, there is no d ...

Essays

Is moral value, as some theories of ethics insist, different from economic value? Should the moral value always overr ...

Essays

What makes merchandise valuable is usefulness and scarcity. Air is useful, but has no value, as anyone can get it eas ...

Essays

What is definition? This is a question hard to answer. This requires the definition of definitions. You must know wha ...

Essays

The predicates prefixed with the definite article that refer to one and only one individual are definite descriptions ...

Essays

Existentialists often contrast existence and essence. When they assert existence precedes essence, they regard essenc ...

Essays

If the handicap was unavoidable, then what s/he should resent is not the handicap itself but the way of society that ...

Essays

What is the difference between reason and cause? Have you thought these are similar terms to explain something? Philo ...

Essays

We take it for granted we live in the three-dimensional space, but we do not perceive the three dimensions directly. ...

Essays

The question “What is time?” has been an eternal problem for philosophers. However, you can define a phys ...

Essays

Philosophers often use the adjective transcendental, for example, when they speak of the transcendental consciousness ...

Essays

Anxiety and fear are similar feelings that we have of danger, but they are not the same. It is when you come short of ...

Essays

Authoritarians are unhappy persons, because they may eat bad meals on splendid plates and, what is more, they even do ...

Essays

People who confuses feminism with egalitarianism have missed the conspiracy of feminism. I will clarify why feminism ...

Essays

Freedom is usually thought to be opposed to equality, because, when everyone has freedom of selection, some are selec ...

Essays

The usage of the pronoun I is not innate but acquired. At first, Infants use their proper names to refer to themselve ...

Essays

Those who take narcissism as sexual perversion, confuse narcissism with egoism. However, narcissists not only find th ...

Essays

Can you say you are really happy so long as you feel happy? Or are there any requisites besides mere feelings?

Essays

We come across two sorts of incompleteness if you regard language as means to represent the world faithfully and comm ...

Essays

It is evident that I have consciousness. How can I prove that there are other minds besides mine, then? If I cannot p ...

Essays

In this article, I define what life is and assert that social systems are also life. I will show societies are living ...

Essays

There are three main theories of truth: the correspondence theory, the coherence theory and the power theory. In this ...

Essays

You would think you have consciousness, but robots do not. What criteria should we apply for judging whether a certai ...

Essays

An ad hoc consultative agency of the prime minister in Japan, where there is no conscription, proposes that all 18-ye ...

Essays

The term autopoiesis originally stems from biology, but it is used in philosophy and sociology. In this article, I wi ...

Essays

Elements are defined as minimum parts that cannot be divided any more. Are elements of material systems atoms and tho ...

Essays

Mysterious monism criticizes the dualism of modern philosophers. We must, however, overcome the horizon of dualism an ...

Essays

We feel more comfortable in the natural breeze than that mechanically caused by the fan. You might consider the natur ...

Essays

Oil and coal, which have brought about modern industry, are limited resources and destined to be exhausted someday. M ...

Essays

One of the most popular environmental problems is the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect, though most of ...

Essays

The costs to society caused by the consumption or production of goods that are not incorporated into the price of the ...

Essays

In modern Europe, engineers tried to invent perpetual motion machines, only to fail. Perpetual motion machines are im ...

Essays

Although almost all books concerning complex systems mention chaos and fractals, I suspect that not all fractals are ...

Essays

Although the science of complexity is in fashion, there is almost no agreement on what the complex system is. In this ...

Essays

Chaos is not a mere disorder. What is chaos, then? Let’s consider why chaos does not result in skepticism, thou ...

Essays

There are two fundamental laws in thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is the law of the conservation of e ...

Essays

The word system is derived from a Greek word sunistanai (to combine) and a system is usually defined as a group of co ...