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My proposals for the reformation of our systems.


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The Anno Domini dating system and the Gregorian calendar that we now use are not zero-based numbering systems. There are no zeroth days, zeroth months or the zeroth year in these systems. That is because Europeans did not know zero as a number when they invented the AD dating system and the Roman calendar, the prototype of the Gregorian calendar. The numeral system we now use is, however, the zero-based decimal system. Identifying the time in reference to the current time system makes it difficult to calculate the functions whose variables include time. Although we should avoid unnecessary amendments, it is not desirable that we will continue to be bound by the numbering system which was formed when European mathematics was underdeveloped. Here I propose the best calendar that I can think of.


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When academic journals used paper media, limited space obliged editors to have referees review contributors’ manuscripts and selectively publish them, but the spread of the Internet has lowered the publication costs and the age of speed has outdated the peer-reviewed journals. To respond to the demands of the day, we should separate evaluation from publication and create a new system for evaluation. Here we propose a new system that replaces the current peer-review system named the recursive voting system. This system is founded on two principles, the principle of elitism "The more highly a researcher is estimated, the abler to estimate others’ research he or she is" and the principle of democracy "The more estimators participate in voting, the less unfair and less biased the result becomes."


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As Our Common Future insisted in 1987, “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Since the Industrial Revolution, human development has accelerated so much that its sustainability has come into question. Here I would like to present my proposal for what we should do to make our civilization sustainable. There are three major problems, namely the restriction of population growth, the maintenance and restoration of vegetation, and the utilization of renewable energy.


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The costs to society caused by the consumption or production of goods that are not incorporated into the price of the goods, such as those of pollution or shortage of resources are called external diseconomies. The Pigovian tax internalizes this externality inside the market. For example, if producers do not bear the cost of garbage disposal, they will produce more than socially necessary. If the cost is included in the price of products beforehand, it will reduce the supply to a socially desirable amount. Thus, the Pigovian tax can achieve Pareto optimum, the most efficient allocation of resources whose utility cannot increase without decreasing anyone's utility. 1. Why is the Pigovian Tax necessary? Those influenced by Hayek assert that environmental pollution is not market failure but Government failure, because, if individuals persist in their private properties and do not depend on the irresponsible Government, they endeavor to protect their environments of themselves without Gov ...