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The modern civilization that originated from the Industrial Revolution is now spreading throughout the world. The demand for natural resources is rapidly increasing and the environmental problems are getting globally more and more serious. Our civilization seems hardly sustainable. What should we do to make it sustainable? This series establishes the fundamental theory of civilization, analyzes the problems of resources and the environment in terms of entropy, and suggests a solution to them.


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Today, mainstream scientists recognize global warming as a challenge for our civilization, while skepticism persists. There are various types of skepticism, but we can classify them into three categories: skepticism about the trend of global warming, its anthropogenic causes, and the assessments of its impacts. Here, I would like to examine these three issues about global warming: facts, causes, and assessments. I will then consider how we should deal with global warming.


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The survival of our systems depends on getting the low-entropy resource from the environment, throwing the high-entropy waste into the environment, and maintaining the low-entropy structure against the environment. That is why the fluctuation of the environment has changed human history. Environmental history is now in fashion thanks to the rise of environmentalism, but I would like to reconstruct environmental history in terms of my theory of entropy.


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One of the most popular environmental problems is the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect, though most of the people are not sure what bad effect it will have on us.