Articles on systems in general or interdisciplinary topics.

## The Survival of Systems Against Entropy

2007-09-02

The shortage of natural resources and the destruction of the natural environment are two colossal problems that are now threatening our existence. These seemingly two problems are just one problem ― the problem of entropy. On this page, I will show that the essence of the two problems is entropy and that the key to resolving them consists in how to decrease entropy. So, first, let me explain what entropy is.

## What is Autopoiesis?

2000-07-30

The term autopoiesis originally stems from biology, but it is used in philosophy and sociology. In this article, I will investigate what autopoiesis is in comparison with neighboring concepts: self-organization, self-reference and self-reflection.

## What is an Element?

2000-07-23

Elements are defined as minimum parts that cannot be divided any more. Are elements of material systems atoms and those of information systems bits?

## Are All Fractals Complex Systems?

2000-05-28

Although almost all books concerning complex systems mention chaos and fractals, I suspect that not all fractals are complex systems.I have already explained chaos and complex systems. So, first I must explain what fractals are.

## What is a Complex System?

2000-05-21

Although the science of complexity is in fashion, there is almost no agreement on what the complex system is. In this article, I would like to suggest a working definition of the complex system: indeterminate determination.In order to understand the complex system, you must understand two concepts: complexity and system.

## Chaos and Determinism

2000-05-14

Chaos is not a mere disorder. What is chaos, then? Let's consider why chaos does not result in skepticism, though it is neither non-linear nor indeterminate.

## What is a System?

2000-04-29

The word system is derived from a Greek word sunistanai (to combine) and a system is usually defined as a group of combined elements. This definition identifies system/element relation with that of whole/part, but a system is not just a whole composed of parts, much less spatial subsumption relation between a whole and parts. What is a system, then?